当前位置: > > > Swift - 文件,文件夹操作大全

Swift - 文件,文件夹操作大全

(本文代码已升级至Swift3)

iOS开发经常会遇到读文件,写文件等,对文件和文件夹的操作,这时就可以使用FileManager,FileHandle等类来实现。
下面总结了各种常用的操作:

1,遍历一个目录下的所有文件

假设用户文档下有如下文件和文件夹:test1.txt、fold1/test2.txt

(1)首先我们获取用户文档目录路径
let manager = FileManager.default
let urlForDocument = manager.urls(for: .documentDirectory, in:.userDomainMask)
let url = urlForDocument[0] as URL
print(url)

(2)对指定路径执行浅搜索,返回指定目录路径下的文件、子目录及符号链接的列表
let contentsOfPath = try? manager.contentsOfDirectory(atPath: url.path)
print("contentsOfPath: \(contentsOfPath)")

(3)类似上面的,对指定路径执行浅搜索,返回指定目录路径下的文件、子目录及符号链接的列表
let contentsOfURL = try? manager.contentsOfDirectory(at: url,
                        includingPropertiesForKeys: nil, options: .skipsHiddenFiles)
print("contentsOfURL: \(contentsOfURL)")

(4)深度遍历,会递归遍历子文件夹(但不会递归符号链接)
let enumeratorAtPath = manager.enumerator(atPath: url.path)
print("enumeratorAtPath: \(enumeratorAtPath?.allObjects)")

(5)类似上面的,深度遍历,会递归遍历子文件夹(但不会递归符号链接)
let enumeratorAtURL = manager.enumerator(at: url, includingPropertiesForKeys: nil,
                                         options: .skipsHiddenFiles, errorHandler:nil)
print("enumeratorAtURL: \(enumeratorAtURL?.allObjects)")

(6)深度遍历,会递归遍历子文件夹(包括符号链接,所以要求性能的话用enumeratorAtPath)
let subPaths = manager.subpaths(atPath: url.path)
print("subPaths: \(subPaths)")

2,判断文件或文件夹是否存在

let fileManager = FileManager.default
let filePath:String = NSHomeDirectory() + "/Documents/hangge.txt"
let exist = fileManager.fileExists(atPath: filePath)

3,创建文件夹 

方式1:
let myDirectory:String = NSHomeDirectory() + "/Documents/myFolder/Files"
let fileManager = FileManager.default

//withIntermediateDirectories为ture表示路径中间如果有不存在的文件夹都会创建
try! fileManager.createDirectory(atPath: myDirectory,
                        withIntermediateDirectories: true, attributes: nil)
方式2:
func createFolder(name:String,baseUrl:NSURL){
    let manager = FileManager.default
    let folder = baseUrl.appendingPathComponent(name, isDirectory: true)
    print("文件夹: \(folder)")
    let exist = manager.fileExists(atPath: folder!.path)
    if !exist {
        try! manager.createDirectory(at: folder!, withIntermediateDirectories: true,
                                     attributes: nil)
    }
}
    
//在文档目录下新建folder目录
let manager = FileManager.default
let urlForDocument = manager.urls(for: .documentDirectory, in: .userDomainMask)
let url = urlForDocument[0] as NSURL
createFolder(name: "folder", baseUrl: url)

4,将对象写入文件

可以通过write(to:)方法,可以创建文件并将对象写入,对象包括String,NSString,UIImage,NSArray,NSDictionary等。
(1)把String保存到文件
let filePath:String = NSHomeDirectory() + "/Documents/hangge.txt"
let info = "欢迎来到hange.com"
try! info.write(toFile: filePath, atomically: true, encoding: String.Encoding.utf8)

(2)把图片保存到文件路径下
let filePath = NSHomeDirectory() + "/Documents/hangge.png"
let image = UIImage(named: "apple.png")
let data:Data = UIImagePNGRepresentation(image!)!
try? data.write(to: URL(fileURLWithPath: filePath))

(3)把NSArray保存到文件路径下
let array = NSArray(objects: "aaa","bbb","ccc")
let filePath:String = NSHomeDirectory() + "/Documents/array.plist"
array.write(toFile: filePath, atomically: true)

(4)把NSDictionary保存到文件路径下
let dictionary:NSDictionary = ["Gold": "1st Place", "Silver": "2nd Place"]
let filePath:String = NSHomeDirectory() + "/Documents/dictionary.plist"
dictionary.write(toFile: filePath, atomically: true)

5,创建文件

func createFile(name:String, fileBaseUrl:URL){
    let manager = FileManager.default
    
    let file = fileBaseUrl.appendingPathComponent(name)
    print("文件: \(file)")
    let exist = manager.fileExists(atPath: file.path)
    if !exist {
        let data = Data(base64Encoded:"aGVsbG8gd29ybGQ=" ,options:.ignoreUnknownCharacters)
        let createSuccess = manager.createFile(atPath: file.path,contents:data,attributes:nil)
        print("文件创建结果: \(createSuccess)")
    }
}

//在文档目录下新建test.txt文件
let manager = FileManager.default
let urlForDocument = manager.urls( for: .documentDirectory,
                                   in:.userDomainMask)
let url = urlForDocument[0]
createFile(name:"test.txt", fileBaseUrl: url)
//createFile(name: "folder/new.txt", fileBaseUrl: url)

6,复制文件 

(1)方法1
let fileManager = FileManager.default
let homeDirectory = NSHomeDirectory()
let srcUrl = homeDirectory + "/Documents/hangge.txt"
let toUrl = homeDirectory + "/Documents/copyed.txt"
try! fileManager.copyItem(atPath: srcUrl, toPath: toUrl)

(2)方法2
// 定位到用户文档目录
let manager = FileManager.default
let urlForDocument = manager.urls( for:.documentDirectory, in:.userDomainMask)
let url = urlForDocument[0]

// 将test.txt文件拷贝到文档目录根目录下的copyed.txt文件
let srcUrl = url.appendingPathComponent("test.txt")
let toUrl = url.appendingPathComponent("copyed.txt")

try! manager.copyItem(at: srcUrl, to: toUrl)

7,移动文件

(1)方法1
let fileManager = FileManager.default
let homeDirectory = NSHomeDirectory()
let srcUrl = homeDirectory + "/Documents/hangge.txt"
let toUrl = homeDirectory + "/Documents/moved/hangge.txt"
try! fileManager.moveItem(atPath: srcUrl, toPath: toUrl)

(2)方法2
// 定位到用户文档目录
let manager = FileManager.default
let urlForDocument = manager.urls( for: .documentDirectory, in:.userDomainMask)
let url = urlForDocument[0]

let srcUrl = url.appendingPathComponent("test.txt")
let toUrl = url.appendingPathComponent("copyed.txt")
// 移动srcUrl中的文件(test.txt)到toUrl中(copyed.txt)
try! manager.moveItem(at: srcUrl, to: toUrl)

8,删除文件

(1)方法1
let fileManager = FileManager.default
let homeDirectory = NSHomeDirectory()
let srcUrl = homeDirectory + "/Documents/hangge.txt"
try! fileManager.removeItem(atPath: srcUrl)

(2)方法2
// 定位到用户文档目录
let manager = FileManager.default
let urlForDocument = manager.urls(for: .documentDirectory, in:.userDomainMask)
let url = urlForDocument[0]

let toUrl = url.appendingPathComponent("copyed.txt")
// 删除文档根目录下的toUrl路径的文件(copyed.txt文件)
try! manager.removeItem(at: toUrl)

9,删除目录下所有的文件

(1)方法1:获取所有文件,然后遍历删除
let fileManager = FileManager.default
let myDirectory = NSHomeDirectory() + "/Documents/Files"
let fileArray = fileManager.subpaths(atPath: myDirectory)
for fn in fileArray!{
    try! fileManager.removeItem(atPath: myDirectory + "/\(fn)")
}

(2)方法2:删除目录后重新创建该目录
let fileManager = FileManager.default
let myDirectory = NSHomeDirectory() + "/Documents/Files"
try! fileManager.removeItem(atPath: myDirectory)
try! fileManager.createDirectory(atPath: myDirectory, withIntermediateDirectories: true,
                                 attributes: nil)

10,读取文件

let manager = FileManager.default
let urlsForDocDirectory = manager.urls(for: .documentDirectory, in:.userDomainMask)
let docPath = urlsForDocDirectory[0]
let file = docPath.appendingPathComponent("test.txt")

//方法1
let readHandler = try! FileHandle(forReadingFrom:file)
let data = readHandler.readDataToEndOfFile()
let readString = String(data: data, encoding: String.Encoding.utf8)
print("文件内容: \(readString)")

//方法2
let data2 = manager.contents(atPath: file.path)
let readString2 = String(data: data2!, encoding: String.Encoding.utf8)
print("文件内容: \(readString2)")

11,在任意位置写入数据

let manager = FileManager.default
let urlsForDocDirectory = manager.urls(for:.documentDirectory, in:.userDomainMask)
let docPath = urlsForDocDirectory[0]
let file = docPath.appendingPathComponent("test.txt")

let string = "添加一些文字到文件末尾"
let appendedData = string.data(using: String.Encoding.utf8, allowLossyConversion: true)
let writeHandler = try? FileHandle(forWritingTo:file)
writeHandler!.seekToEndOfFile()
writeHandler!.write(appendedData!)

12,文件权限判断

let manager = FileManager.default
let urlForDocument = manager.urls(for: .documentDirectory, in:.userDomainMask)
let docPath = urlForDocument[0]
let file = docPath.appendingPathComponent("test.txt")

let readable = manager.isReadableFile(atPath: file.path)
print("可读: \(readable)")
let writeable = manager.isWritableFile(atPath: file.path)
print("可写: \(writeable)")
let executable = manager.isExecutableFile(atPath: file.path)
print("可执行: \(executable)")
let deleteable = manager.isDeletableFile(atPath: file.path)
print("可删除: \(deleteable)")

13,获取文件属性(创建时间,修改时间,文件大小,文件类型等信息)

let manager = FileManager.default
let urlForDocument = manager.urls(for: .documentDirectory, in:.userDomainMask)
let docPath = urlForDocument[0]
let file = docPath.appendingPathComponent("test.txt")

let attributes = try? manager.attributesOfItem(atPath: file.path) //结果为Dictionary类型
print("attributes: \(attributes!)")

attributes 中获取具体的属性:
print("创建时间:\(attributes![FileAttributeKey.creationDate]!)")
print("修改时间:\(attributes![FileAttributeKey.modificationDate]!)")
print("文件大小:\(attributes![FileAttributeKey.size]!)")

14,文件/文件夹比较

let manager = FileManager.default
let urlForDocument = manager.urls(for: .documentDirectory, in:.userDomainMask)
let docPath = urlForDocument[0]
let contents = try! manager.contentsOfDirectory(atPath: docPath.path)

//下面比较用户文档中前面两个文件是否内容相同(该方法也可以用来比较目录)
let count = contents.count
if count > 1 {
    let path1 = docPath.path + "/" + (contents[0] as String)
    let path2 = docPath.path + "/" + (contents[1] as String)
    let equal = manager.contentsEqual(atPath: path1,andPath:path2)
    print("path1:\(path1)")
    print("path2:\(path2)")
    print("比较结果: \(equal)")
}
评论13
  • 13楼
    2017-03-16 22:08
    summer

    看了两天了 ,,,谢谢你整理

    站长回复

    不客气。

  • 12楼
    2017-03-12 19:44
    tw

    航哥好,我现在做了一个简单的读取txt功能,在mac上的模拟器用你的方法能够读取成功,但是导到真机测试却又读取失败了。这是读取txt文档用了绝对路径的问题吗?
    代码是这样的:
    let manager = FileManager.default
    let urlsForDocDirectory = manager.urls(for: .documentDirectory, in:.userDomainMask)
    另外,真机测试的话如何把txt文档加到项目里呢?
    谢谢!

    站长回复

    1,代码没问题,如果真机文档目录下有文件肯定可以读取到的。除非文件不存在。

    2,要把txt文件加到项目中,只需在“Copy Bundle Resources”中把txt文件加进来就可以了

  • 11楼
    2017-01-06 15:03
    王沫

    代码写在项目中才可获得正确路径,有人可能在Playground里写是获取不到的

    站长回复

    这个倒提醒我了,确实有可能是把代码放在Playground里跑,造成获取不到。

  • 10楼
    2016-12-14 22:39
    smart

    航哥你好,谢谢您!

    站长回复

    不客气,这篇文章写的比较早,我现在又把代码更新成Swift3的了。

  • 9楼
    2016-06-28 17:35
    袋鼠

    创建的文件夹和文件为什么看不到?

    站长回复

    肯定是你进错文件夹了。你可以把创建的文件、文件夹路径打印出来,再通过finder进到这个路径里看看。

  • 8楼
    2016-06-01 09:15
    Leoyy

    RE :复制文件 manager.copyItemAtURL(srcUrl, toURL: toUrl)
    如果是文件服务器 比如 192.168.1.1/gdlocal/date 这个文件夹 怎么实现免密码
    预设 密码 gdlocal
    因公司用的都是MAC,此处也是MAC上的共享文件夹,不是文件服务器,不过解决方法找到:
    system("mkdir /Volumes/mntpnt")
    system("mount_afp afp://username:password@hostname/gdlocal/ /Volumes/mntpnt/")
    先用afp挂载网络共享文件夹,然后操作.

    站长回复

    这样啊!谢谢你的分享,我也学了一招。

  • 7楼
    2016-05-30 18:48
    lurch

    不错 很详细

    站长回复

    欢迎常来看看。

  • 6楼
    2016-05-08 00:45
    Leoyy

    复制文件 manager.copyItemAtURL(srcUrl, toURL: toUrl)
    如果是文件服务器 比如 192.168.1.1/gdlocal/date 这个文件夹 怎么实现免密码
    预设 密码 gdlocal

    站长回复

    是什么样的文件服务器,ftp吗?ftp的话建议使用一些封装好的库,参考我原来写的这篇文章:Swift - FTP客户端的制作(使用Rebekka库)

  • 5楼
    2016-04-22 12:35
    aoxiaomi

    站长回复: 那就转成NSArray再保存:
    let array2 = ["22","33","44"]
    let filePath:String = NSHomeDirectory() + "/Documents/array.plist"
    NSArray(array: array2).writeToFile(filePath, atomically: true)
    问题:我的Array是类类型。保存不进去呢。

    站长回复

    如果要保存自定义类对象就要先实现序列化方法,参考我原来写的这篇文章:Swift - 本地数据的保存与加载(使用NSCoder将对象保存到.plist文件)

  • 4楼
    2016-04-21 20:35
    aoxiaomi

    站长您好。请问如果类型是Array而不是NSArray,该怎么保存成plist文件。谢谢!

    站长回复

    那就转成NSArray再保存:

    let array2 = ["22","33","44"]
    let filePath:String = NSHomeDirectory() + "/Documents/array.plist"
    NSArray(array: array2).writeToFile(filePath, atomically: true)

  • 3楼
    2016-03-31 18:02
    qzslz

    写的非常棒!找到了我需要的知识!很全面

    站长回复

    很高兴我的文章对你有用,欢迎常来看看。

  • 2楼
    2016-03-12 23:28
    小王吧

    航哥你好,我是一名学习swift的新人,非常感谢你的文章分享。
    我自己新建了一个微信公众号,这几天是借用您的文章,您有空可否 关注一下,查看我的分享是否侵权,如有侵权,请告之我,我马上删除。 微信公众号:做足球界最会敲代码的

    站长回复

    不知道为什么我这边搜索不到你的公众号。
    很高兴你能喜欢我的文章。如果不是大批量的转载,只是少量的几篇文章转载是没问题的。
    转载时记得要”注明出处,并附上原文超链接“。

  • 1楼
    2016-01-29 22:58
    小华

    写的很详细,学习到了,谢谢分享,支持一下。

    站长回复

    谢谢你的支持